Monthly Archives: April 2014

Bruce Perry and Children’s Choirs

Cantoria1 Youths larger della_robbia_02I’ve reported Dr. Bruce Perry’s in Washington May 4 to talk on healing trauma at the National Council.

What’s that got to do with this sculpture of children singing in the Cathedral of Florence in 1436 to kick off the Renaissance?  Everything!

Dr. Perry says it’s brain science to regulate the brain stem with “patterned, repetitive, rhythmic regulation,” featuring yoga, meditation, deep breathing, and singing, principles so fundamental they go back to the dawn of man. [FN1]

Who can imagine life without singing?  In every culture, long before writing, the only way to pass down an idea was to sing it. Aryans have sung Vedas since 5,000 BC or before. Hebrews sang Psalms as far back as 2,500 BC, long before they were written down ca. 1400 BC. [FN2  ]

Want to regulate kids? Teach them to sing! Gathering children to sing in choirs was the core of the Greek educational system since at least 700 BC, and there were choir schools for kids in Europe at least since the 900s AD. [FN3]  Singing in choirs brings kids into organized personal connection with other living, regularly-breathing human beings.  Being connected and in harmony with other humans is what best regulates human beings – today brain scientists call it “limbic resonance.” [FN4]

Amira Willighagen 1Singing gives kids a voice!  Children have been known to sing gloriously even today. Watch 9-year old Amira Willighagen sing in Amsterdam last year.

She did it without any training.  Amira just went on the internet looking for songs, found this Italian aria, and learned it by imitating.  Clearly she found a terrific adult soprano – we can hear the inflections of a highly-experienced adult in Amira’s voice. [FN5]

St Thomas Choir1AOr take the St. Thomas Boys Choir of Leipzig. When J.S. Bach became music director in 1723, the choir school was already 511 years old. Click here for the boys singing a Bach “Gloria.”    [FN6]

Born to Sing

Cantoria2 Boys10-12 & Teens della_robbia22If a child can speak, he can sing; most kids can sing before they can speak. Training children to sing as young as possible is a principle of civilization. Electronic culture has forgotten it to our peril as our kids whack out on machine-made noise. We need a revolutionary approach as old as the hills.  We need children’s choirs on a mass scale.

These children singing on the “Cantoria” by Lucca della Robbia, sculpted 1431-36, were placed in the Cathedral as public ads, to urge parents to bring in their kids for training. This is the level of culture and education which later produced Bach, Haydn, Schubert and Beethoven. Was their genius just magic?  Why don’t we have composers today, who produce music on such a scale (and they did it all without electronic equipment) ?

Answer: Bach & co. were trained as children to sing harmonic, complex polyphony (4-6 different musical lines at once).  So complex, harmonic music was what they heard in their heads as little kids. They were bilingual; music was their second mother tongue.  To them, it was simple: as soon as they could hold a pen, they would just start to write down their musical ideas. That tradition continued in Europe until the end of the 19th Century.

And there’s another reason everybody loves music: it’s because every body loves music. Music is literally built into kids’ bodies from the hour of conception.  Our bodies physically need it. And kids know that instinctively, from infancy.

“The first music encoded deep within your memory are the earliest vibrations that made you – the rhythms and tempos of your first cells,” writes Galina Mindlin, MD and music therapist.

“As your cells began to develop with the rhythms of your mother’s heartbeat and the whooshing sounds vibrating through her placenta and your umbilical cord, these first musical scores began entraining (two or more rhythms synchronizing into one) in your brain… your brain was already establishing the relationship for how music affects you today…   Newborns can almost immediately show some memory of sounds they encountered in the womb… Before any of us is capable of speaking words, we can recognize changes in notes and rhythmic patterns…” [FN7]

The Mother of All  Trauma

Cantoria3 Boys 10-11 playing stringsWhat about trauma healing?  Consider this: from 1348-1350, the Black Death, the mother of all trauma, killed half the population of Asia and Europe. In Italy, Florence’s population was reduced from 120,000 in 1338 to 50,000 in 1351. Many thought civilization was finished. [FN8]

Then a handful of intellectuals devised the idea of a re-birth or “Renaissance,” a project to unite a new economics to feed the population, with the science, philosophy, and arts to uplift them.  Florence had a famous problem whose solution could inspire people with hope. At the city’s center lay the massive Cathedral of Florence, begun 1296 — but no one had any idea how a dome could be built large enough to cover such a space without collapsing. Work was also delayed by waves of plague for decades. The roof lay open for over a century as people prayed in the rain.

During 1402–1404, Filippo Brunelleschi and his friend Donatello visited Rome to study the ancient ruins and the Pantheon on which the Cathedral was modeled. They returned to build the first “classical” buildings in Florence. In 1420, Florentine banker Cosimo de’ Medici (1389-1464) bankrolled Brunelleschi to work  16 years to complete the first octagonal dome in history to be built without a wooden supporting frame. [FN9]

What did they do in that Cathedral? They brought in the children of the city and taught them to sing, to show there was hope for the future, that  the children could be saved from the jaws of death. These sculptures just above show that by the age of 9-11, kids were singing (and playing) complex four and six part polyphony.

Note the rounded mouths in all the sculptures (and in the St. Thomas boys). Vocal scholars can tell you what note they’re singing by how large of an egg-shaped mouth they’re making.

The dome was ready in time for the Council of Florence which opened in the Cathedral on March 25, 1436, the date often cited as the start of the Renaissance. Inside were featured these sculptures of children singing in the choir loft by Lucca della Robbia.  Flemish composer Guillaume Dufay and many of his colleagues were brought to Italy to teach advanced musical composition.  Dufay’s advanced motet Nuper rosarum flores was composed for the 1436 opening and sung from della Robbia’s choir loft by kids like these in the sculptures.

Cosimo de’ Medici and his grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449-1492) also backed philosophers Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola. Pico’s 1486 “Oration on the Dignity of Man” stated the Renaissance Idea: each individual human soul is a divine spark of God, not a beast of burden as under feudalism.

Cantoria4 Boys 5-10 Sing-Dance1A webThese sculptures show that in Florence, the Dignity of Man began with the dignity of the children.  These kids have been taught to sing even younger, at 5 to 8 years.  Della Robbia did several sculptures of toddlers singing as well (more than I have space to show!).

Cantoria5 Infant singingEven infants sang, singing with their families perhaps while they learned to speak.This child is not much older than 2.  Kids who started this early acquired the experience it took to produce genius in many fields.

San Diego Trauma-Informed Renaissance?

I’ve seen this kind of singing of fine music in choirs make traumatized children happy.  Musicians who run children’s choirs will tell you that.

San Diego Childrens Choir1 earlyyears_collageThe San Diego Children’s Choir (right), founded 1990, now has 5 branches with  over 250 participants. It also has a neighborhood outreach program that spans many low-income areas full of traumatized children including City Heights and other areas.

City Heights is also where Principal Godwin Higa has been turning Cherokee Point Elementary into an advanced trauma-infomed school since 2008. Three professors at San Diego State and community organizers Dana Brown and Dorothy Zirkle worked with the City Heights community to develop a two-year $684,094 pilot project at Cherokee Point, the Wellness and Restorative Practice Partnership (WRPP), funded by the California Endowment.

I can’t be with Bruce Perry in Washington May 4, but I will be in San Diego May 2, talking to  my friend Dana Brown and other members of the San Diego Trauma-Informed Guide Team (SD-TIGT) about Bruce Perry, Bessel van der Kolk, and the brain science of trauma.  SD-TIGT is leading the way among county health and welfare institutions to implement trauma-prevention and trauma-healing practices in schools, medical, and social facilities.

If Principal Higa and Dana haven’t met the folks at the San Diego Children’s Choir yet, maybe I’ll be able to provoke something.  Even if they’ve met, maybe we can expand their forces. As a result of the economic crisis, San Diego just lost its opera company, the San Diego Opera.  The city must be full of struggling singers, school music teachers and private voice teachers who would jump at the chance to teach every child at Cherokee El to sing Bach.

Next step: find our Cosimo de’ Medici to pay these already financially-pressed musicians and educators, so they can put in the hours necessary every week at Cherokee El. Then stand back.

Kathy’s news blogs expand on her book “DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME: The Silent Epidemic of Attachment Disorder—How I accidentally regressed myself back to infancy and healed it all.” Watch for the continuing series each Friday, as she explores her journey of recovery by learning the hard way about Attachment Disorder in adults, adult Attachment Theory, and the Adult Attachment Interview.



FN1  Lucca della Robbia, Cantoria (Choir Loft), shows children singing, dancing,and  making music to “praise the Lord” in the words of Psalm 150. Photos  at


FN3  Chorus members in Greek theater were trained in childhood from around 700 BC.  Greek theater always included a chorus, whose members also danced and spoke, but also sang. [ ]  Both boys and girls were trained to sing.  [ ]  Greece and Rome founded many children’s singing schools [ ] The Schola Cantorum in Rome was formed in the seventh century to train boys in reading and singing.
The Vienna Boys Choir, formalized in a 1498 letter by Maximilian I Habsburg, goes back to the year 957 when Bishop Wolfgang of Regensburg created his cathedral choir [  and ] The first choir school was founded at  St. Paul’s Cathedral, London in 1127, the second at St. Thomas’ Church, Leipzig in 1212. A boarding school for choristers at the Kreuzkirche in Dresden is mentioned in 1300, a choir known now as the Dresdner Kreuzchor. The Vienna Boys Choir received a solid musical education, many went on to become professional musicians such as Franz Schubert.
[ ].

FN4  Lewis, Thomas, MD; Amini, Fari, MD; Lannon, Richard, MD; “A General Theory of Love”, Random House, New York, 2000.  Lannon interviews :

FN5  Amira Willighagen video:

FN6  St.Thomas Choir video:

FN7  Mindlin, Galina, MD, PhD, “Your Playlist Can Change Your Life,” Sourcebooks, Inc., Naperville, IL, 2012  More here:

FN8  The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350 with 30–60 percent of Europe’s population killed. It reduced world population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in the 14th century.

FN9  Walker, Paul Robert, “The Feud That Sparked the Renaissance: How Brunelleschi and Ghiberti Changed the Art World,” Harper Collins, 2003

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Perry: Rhythm Regulates the Brain

Perry another headshotDr. Bruce Perry, MD is taking his healing for trauma to Washington in a May 4 program for the National Council for Behavioral Health.

And the doc’s got rhythm.  In fact, he and other trauma experts are reporting revolutionary success with treatments using yoga, meditation, deep breathing, singing, dancing, drumming and more.

These principles are so fundamental to our brains they go back to the dawn of man; the Vedas were sung before 5,000 BC (likely with yoga and meditation.)  My book describes how yogic chant and meditation saved my life in 2010, before I ever read a word about brain science.

One California county is trying to cancel such programs, insisting on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which relies on the thinking brain.  But Perry and many experts say talk therapy alone can re-traumatize trauma survivors.

Perry says we need “patterned, repetitive, rhythmic somatosensory activity,” literally,  bodily sensing exercises. Developmental trauma happens in the body, where pre-conscious “implicit memory” was laid down in the primitive brain stem (survival brain) and viscera. Long before we had a thinking frontal cortex or “explicit memory” function. [FN1]

The list of repetitive, rhythmic regulations used for trauma by Dr. Perry, Dr. Bessel van der Kolk, Dr. Pat Ogden and others is remarkable. It includes singing, dancing, drumming, and most musical activities.  It also relies on meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Qi Gong, along with theater groups, walking, running, swinging, trampoline work, massage, equine grooming and other animal-assisted therapy…. even skateboarding. Click here for Perry’s web page on interventions.

“I am asked how hip hop and skateboarding can help a child with depression or ADHD,” reports Dr. Sarah MacArthur of the San Diego Center for Children. “Yet 70% of the children showed improvement in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD.” [FN2]

The Brain Stem Rules

Perry simpler 4 brain from web“The brain organizes from bottom to top, with the lower parts of the brain (brain stem/diencephalon aka “survival brain”) developing earliest, the cortical areas (thinking brain) much later,” Perry says. “The majority of brain organization takes place in the first four years.

“Because this is the time when the brain makes the majority of its “primary” associations… early developmental trauma and neglect have disproportionate influence on brain organization and later brain functioning… When a child has experienced chronic threats, the brain exists in a persisting state of fear… and the lower parts of the brain house maladaptive, influential, and terrifying pre-conscious memories… ”  [FN3]

“People with developmental trauma can start to feel so threatened that they get into a fight-flight alarm state, and the higher parts of the brain shut down,” says Perry. “First the stress chemicals shut down their frontal cortex (thinking brain).  Now they physically can not think. Ask them to think and you only make them more anxious.

“Next the emotional brain (limbic brain) shuts down. They have attachment trauma, so people per se seem threatening; they don’t get reward from emotional or relational interaction.

“The only part of the brain left functioning is the most primitive: the brain stem and diencephalon cerebellum. If you want a person to use relational reward, or cortical thought – first those lowest parts of the brain have got to be regulated,” Perry concludes.

We must regulate people, before we can possibly persuade them with a cognitive argument or compel them with an emotional affect.

“The only way to move from these super-high anxiety states, to calmer more cognitive states, is rhythm,” he says. “Patterned, repetitive rhythmic activity: walking, running, dancing, singing, repetitive meditative breathing – you use brain stem-related somatosensory networks which make your brain accessible to relational (limbic brain) reward and cortical thinking.

“Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is great if you have a developed frontal cortex – but we’re talking about a five year old kid who’s so scared to death most of the time that it’s shut down his frontal cortex ’cause he just saw his mother get shot,” Perry told an audience of therapists. “You’re going to do 20 sessions of CBT and expect change? That’s a fantasy.”  [FN4]

6 R’s for Healing Trauma

Perry NMT Bar Chart from webDr. Perry does separate developmental “maps” of each person (left) using his “Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics” (NMT). Each individual is so unique that using NMT needs training;  this blog is meant only to point you toward it. For an overview of NMT, click here for Perry, B.D. and Hambrick, E. (2008), “Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics.  Click here for training in NMT and Somatosensory Regulation.

Trauma healing, says Perry, requires 6 R’s; it must be:
Relational (safe)
Relevant (developmentally-matched to the individual)
Repetitive (patterned)
Rewarding (pleasurable)
Rhythmic (resonant with neural patterns)
Respectful (of the child, family, and culture)

“To change any neural network in the brain, we need to provide patterned, repetitive input to reach poorly organized neural networks involved in the stress response. Any neural network that is activated in a repetitive way will change,” Perry explains.

“The rhythm of these experiences matter. The brain stem and diencephalon contain powerful associations to rhythmic somatosensory activity created in utero and reinforced in early in life. The brain makes associations between patterns of neural activity that co-occur.

“One of the most powerful sets of associations created in utero is the association between patterned repetitive rhythmic activity from maternal heart rate, and all the neural patterns of activity associated with not being hungry, not been thirsty, and feeling ‘safe’ (in the womb).

“Patterned, repetitive, rhythmic somatosensory activity… elicits a sensation of safety.  Rhythm is regulating.  All cultures have some form of patterned, repetitive rhythmic activity as part of their healing and mourning rituals — dancing, drumming, and swaying.

“EMDR and bilateral tapping are variations of this patterned, repetitive rhythmic, somatosensory activity… We believe that they are regulating in part because they are tapping into the deeply ingrained, powerful permeating associations created in utero.”  [FN5]

For each child, the NMT develops a unique, personalized “map” (see above) of what the specific neurological damage has been, how far development has come (or not), and where the child needs to go. Next it creates “a unique sequence of developmentally-appropriate interventions,” says Perry. “While many deficits may be present, the sequence in which these are addressed is important. The more the therapeutic process can replicate the normal sequential process of development, the more effective…

“The first step in therapeutic success is brain stem regulation… Start with the lowest undeveloped/ abnormally functioning set of problems and move sequentially up the brain as improvements are seen…

“An example of a repetitive intervention is positive, nurturing interactions with trustworthy peers, teachers, and caregiver… using patterned, repetitive somatosensory activities such as dance, music, movement, yoga,  drumming or therapeutic massage…  This is true especially for children whose persisting fear state is so overwhelming that they cannot improve via increased positive relationships, or even therapeutic relationships, until their brain stem is regulated by safe, predictable, repetitive sensory input.” [FN6]

Sound like your family doctor saying “Go calm down in the gym” ?  I thought so – until I tried it.  It works, big time.  My story is here: “Dr. Perry: Music Makes Your Case.”


Kathy’s news blogs expand on her book “DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME: The Silent Epidemic of Attachment Disorder—How I accidentally regressed myself back to infancy and healed it all.” Watch for the continuing series each Friday, as she explores her journey of recovery by learning the hard way about Attachment Disorder in adults, adult Attachment Theory, and the Adult Attachment Interview.


FN1  Perry, Bruce D., MD,  “Born for Love: The Effects of Empathy on the Developing Brain,” Annual Interpersonal Neurobiology Conference “How People Change: Relationship & Neuroplasticity in Psychotherapy,” UCLA, Los Angeles, March 8, 2013 (unpublished).
Library of articles on interventions, trauma, brain development:
Training in NMT Method and Somatosensory Regulation, Power of Rhythm — Individual and Site Training Certification Programs, DVD/streaming training, and online training:
Dr. Perry’s latest research and key slides: “Helping Children Recover from Trauma,” National Council LIVE, National Council on Behavioral Health, Sept. 5, 2013 at  (scroll down to Sept. 2013.)
Dr. Perry’s YouTube channel with educational videos in depth:

FN2  MacArthur, Sarah,PhD., “Wellness Innovations Transform Children,” San Diego Center for Children, June 2013,

FN3  Perry, B.D. and Hambrick, E. (2008), “The Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT),” Reclaiming Children and Youth, 17 (3) 38-43;  and
Dobson, C. & Perry, B.D. (2010), “The role of healthy relational interactions in buffering the impact of childhood trauma in “Working with Children to Heal Interpersonal Trauma: The Power of Play,” (E. Gil, Ed.), The Guilford Press, New York, pp. 26-43
Both at:

FN4  Perry, Bruce D., “Born for Love,” op. cit. FN1

FN5  MacKinnon, L. (2012), “Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics: Interview with Bruce Perry,” The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 33:3 pp 210-218,

FN6  Perry & Hambrick, op. cit. FN3

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Bruce Perry: Attachment and Developmental Trauma

BrousBlog9a Perry head shotDr. Bruce Perry, MD (left) documents the brain science of how attachment problems can cause developmental trauma to a fetus, infant, or child – just when the brain is developing.

And he’s taking his “attachment first” approach to Washington.  In “Trauma Impacts the Brain: Healing Happens in Relationships,” Perry leads a full-day Pre-conference University on Sunday May 4, to kick off  the National Council for Behavioral Health’s Annual Conference ’14 on May 5-7 (click here for details).

“Experiences profoundly influence the development of young children. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) shape the brain’s organization, which, in turn, influences the emotional, social, cognitive, and physiological activities,” the conference website notes.

“So often, trauma happens in relationships, but it is also in relationships that healing occurs. Explore the latest research and clinical treatment with trauma researcher, treatment visionary, and bestselling author of The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, and Born for Love:  Why Empathy is Essential and Endangered, Dr. Bruce Perry.”

Dr. Perry’s relationship and attachment theory healing model first assesses each child as an individual, using his  Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT).  He emphasizes that there is no one label for child trauma. Rather, “there are very individualized patterns of exposure to trauma (all with unique timing, nature, and patterns)… So we don’t call ‘it’ anything,” he wrote me recently. “We describe it — and try to ‘illustrate’ each individual’s trajectory separately” with the NMT’s individualized brain mapping technique. [FN1]

Dr. Perry recommends his books above as the best summaries of his work.  His latest research and key slides are online from his National Council webinar last fall, “Helping Children Recover from Trauma,” National Council LIVE, Sept. 5, 2013 (scroll down to Sept. 2013.)  I really recommend this – and it will only be online through August 2014.

Click here for an overview video:   [FN2]

Survival Brain Develops First

BrousBlog9c Perry Slide1 Brain 4 PartsDr. Perry says we’ve got to learn about the neuro-biological growth of the brain in order of time sequence from  conception to later development in infancy and childhood.

His “Four Part Brain” slide (above) shows the time sequence from the bottom up: first the brain stem develops (pink); then the diencephalon cerebellum (yellow); they make up our primitive reptilian “survival” brain.  Next develop the emotional limbic brain which only mammals have (green), and finally the thinking brain aka frontal cortex (blue).

The fetus’ “survival brain” develop first, because infants require breathing, heart beat, and other survival functions at birth, Dr. Perry told a March 2013 UCLA conference. The rest of the brain develops largely after birth and as an outgrowth of the brain stem. [FN3]

So injury during brain stem development in the first 45 months harms development of the entire brain, the neurons around the viscera, and most of the body.

Dr. Perry next details three key threats to an infant’s developing brain:  Trauma in utero (intra-uterine insult); post-birth attachment trauma; and other post-natal trauma – all before the thinking brain comes on line around age 3.

A fetus in utero is designed to develop in nurturing oxcytocin and other “reward” chemicals released by a mother supported by her family, all joyous a baby is coming. Intra-uterine insult occurs when the mother instead uses substances, or is under stress so that her stress hormones impact the fetus’ developing brain. This can be visible stress to the mother: domestic abuse, work stress, violence.

A fetus, however, can also be subject to stress chemicals with no visible external stress to the mother, as in mothers who are anxious, themselves victims of attachment disorder, don’t want a baby, etc.  Often these mothers have no steady pattern to their heart rate, and since a baby’s brain grows according to the mother’s heart rate rhythm, the baby’s brain develops dysregulated.

All these “causes a cascade of mental and physical problems in every part of the body and brain,” Perry says. “Every part of the whole brain these neurons enervate will be dysregulated.”

Birth: the Mother of All Stress

Attachment trauma occurs easily because birth is incredibly stressful to a baby: suddenly there’s lack of oxygen, blinding light, shocking cold, terrifying noise, and pain. This floods a baby with stress hormones — which is essential because now it’s not having needs met as in the womb; thus it’s got to protest so someone comes. “If animals in the wild didn’t feel the stress of hunger they’d just lie around and die of starvation,” Perry notes.

Mom Smile Baby If all goes as designed, an attuned mother meets the baby’s needs, feeds it, swaddles it, turns down the lights, so the baby feels safe and is flooded with reward optiates like oxytocin. If animals didn’t feel opiate rewards when they get up and eat just what they need (not dirt, for example), they’d not get up.

Then they wouldn’t survive, so the stress hormones and the reward opiates are linked. “At the relief of hungry-thirsty-cold stress, we feel pleasure,” Dr. Perry says. An attuned mother “has a well-organized neurobiology to create a healthy organized neural network for the infant of attachment and regulation…

“And in the arms of that caregiver, that is that magic moment literally weaving together the neurobiology of all these different systems. The biology of attachment is that a baby learns by thousands of good experiences that this stress is tolerable because it leads to reward, and this pleasurable outcome is cathexsized to a person, Mom… Ultimately just seeing or hearing Mom makes you feel safe and pleasurable. Let a wounded soldier talk to his mom, he’ll need 45% less pain meds.”

Or not.

If mom instead is under too much stress herself to meet needs, has too many children and no support, or herself was raised by a mis-attuned mom, “she doesn’t get reward from responding to her baby’s distress,” Perry continues. “So the pull to respond isn’t there.”

Even if no stress to the mother is visible, “if she merely meets physical needs, without involving her own pleasure systems, then the weaving together of meeting needs and the reward/safety system is weak or absent. So her baby learns that stress can be life-threatening, that stress is terrifying,” Dr. Perry concludes. [FN3 op. cit.]

The “Or Not” baby’s brain learns: “that’s all she wrote.”

It develops in a state of perpetual stress in which the stress chemicals simply do not stop and the reward chemicals never or seldom come. In this state, fight/flight cortisol flood eventually leads to “freeze” dissociation, Judith Herman reported back in 1992. [FN4]

More Perry slides at:

Medical Disclaimer: This website is for general information purposes only. It is simply my own research. Individuals should always see their health care provider or licensed psychotherapist before doing anything which they believe to be suggested or indicated herein. Any application of the material on this website is at the reader’s discretion and is the reader’s sole responsibility.

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FN1 Perry, B.D. and Hambrick, E. (2008), “The Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT),” in Reclaiming Children and Youth, 17 (3) 38-43;  and
Dobson, C. & Perry, B.D. (2010), “The role of healthy relational interactions in buffering the impact of childhood trauma in “Working with Children to Heal Interpersonal Trauma: The Power of Play,” (E. Gil, Ed.) The Guilford Press, New York, pp. 26-43
Both at:

FN2  Bruce Perry MD, Daniel Siegel MD,, “Trauma, Brain & Relationship: Helping Children Heal,” – introductory video on Attachment Disorder and development trauma. Copies at

FN3  Perry, Bruce D., MD,  “Born for Love: The Effects of Empathy on the Developing Brain,” Annual Interpersonal Neurobiology Conference “How People Change: Relationship & Neuroplasticity in Psychotherapy,” UCLA, Los Angeles, March 8, 2013 (unpublished).
Library of articles on interventions, trauma, brain development:
Training in NMT Method and Somatosensory Regulation, Power of Rhythm — Individual and Site Training Certification Programs, DVD/streaming training, and online training:
Dr. Perry’s latest research and key slides: “Helping Children Recover from Trauma,” National Council LIVE, National Council on Behavioral Health, Sept. 5, 2013 at  (scroll down to Sept. 2013.)
Dr. Perry’s YouTube channel with educational videos in depth:

FN4  Herman, Judith, “Trauma and Recovery,” Basic Books, New York, 1992

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